Cold toes are a phenomenon that can occur under natural conditions or due to illness. If such a condition occurs only in moments of hypothermia, there is no problem. Also, the fingers may become cold from the mechanical compression of vessels, for example, with improper sitting or small shoes. If the symptom occurs for no apparent reason - they talk about pathology.
A decrease in the temperature of the toes may be accompanied by additional symptoms. Initially, it is just cold to the touch of the phalanx without any discomfort. Also, this condition sometimes adds burning and tingling in the fingers, numbness, discoloration of the skin. Phalanges acquire a bluish or pale tint, may itch. All this is a manifestation of impaired blood circulation.
Fingers of the lower limbs - peripherals for blood circulation. To reach this place, the blood goes through a complete cycle through the most distant arteries. Therefore, a violation in any part of the vascular network is reflected on the toes.
Also, a person may have a congenital anomaly in the structure of the capillaries. They may be more branched or narrowed, in which case the toes and hands will be cold from birth. If, in addition to the legs, the earlobes or the tip of the nose are cold, this clearly indicates diseases of the cardiovascular system.
Causes of cold toes
The main reason why the toes are cold is a violation of the blood circulation cycle. The cycle can be broken due to many factors. Smoking and alcohol increase the risk of plaque formation in the vessels, which is why the lumen is narrowed. Plaques can appear with improper nutrition and chronic diseases. Sitting work is also a favorable factor for violation of capillary circulation. People who spend all day sitting, almost always feel cold in the phalanges of the legs.
Big load for the heart and blood vessels is overweight. Therefore, for obese people, this symptom is frequent. In such cases, the treatment is not applied, the normalization of the mass leads to a general improvement in health. In pregnant women, both the fingers and toes may become cold. In pregnancy, therapy is also not needed and the symptom does not speak of pathology.
The main danger with cold toes is a disease of internal organs and systems, which the patient does not realize.
This symptom appears when:
- Raynaud's disease;
- vegetative dystonia;
- angiopathy of the lower extremities;
- thyroid disease;
- varicose veins;
The feeling of coldness in the legs is often the first sign of illness. Pathological nature can be suspected if such a symptom appears at normal temperature. The more often the patient observes such a phenomenon in himself, and the longer the attack lasts, the more reason to turn to the therapist. In addition to direct causes for limb temperature, there are also risk factors.
Daily habits can increase the risk of the above diseases or directly lead to impaired blood circulation. The main factors are too small or too much weight. With a lack of adipose tissue, heat transfer between the body and the environment is easily disrupted. Thin people often have cold hands and feet. When there is an excess of weight in the vessels, plaques are formed, varicose veins occur, in such a state the cooled phalanges are only part of the problem.
Hard diets lead to a lack of energy reserves, which disrupt the supply of heat and nutrients to the peripheral areas of the body. Therefore, for lovers of monodiet, drinking or strict diets, such a symptom is also not uncommon.
Walking barefoot on a cool surface, such as damp ground, can lead to a constant feeling of coldness in the legs. This is due to the fact that the air temperature is normal and the body does not recognize the threat. At this time, the limbs are supercooled.
Those who like to constantly wrap up their feet, wear knitted socks or too warm shoes, even in summer, also face such a symptom. Toes are cold in this case, even under normal conditions and without pathological causes. Over time, nerve endings "fix" the increased heat as normal temperature. When it gets into normal conditions, the skin perceives normal conditions as cooling, so the phalanges instantly turn cold.
Diagnosis and treatment
If you can not accurately determine the cause of the phenomenon, you need to contact the doctor. Since cold fingers can talk about a serious pathology, it is better to start treatment in time. You can contact the therapist, who will determine a number of examinations. Depending on the cause of the phenomenon, an endocrinologist, a cardiologist, a general practitioner, or a vascular surgeon can lead the therapy.
For the diagnosis assigned:
- rheovasography (measurement of blood flow velocity);
- blood vessel scanning;
- CT scan;
- thermography (measurement of the local temperature of the skin);
- blood tests;
- Ultrasound of the thyroid gland.
After visual inspection and patient complaints, a list of required studies is compiled.
Predict how treatment will be impossible, because the range of diseases is very wide. Therapy is always aimed at getting rid of the root cause, and the symptom of cold toes goes away on its own. The treatment consists of medicines, vitamins and additional procedures.
Medications for such a phenomenon can be taken only with the permission of the doctor. Useful vitamins E, P, B, PP and ascorbic acid. Also shown are physiotherapy methods: warm baths, massages, heating with currents (diathermy), baromassage. When the vessels are obliterated, their lumen completely disappears, in which case bypass or vascular prosthesis is used.
The very symptom of cold fingers is not dangerous, the reasons for which it appears are dangerous. In advanced forms, impaired blood circulation leads to heart attack and stroke. With obliteration, there is a gradual death of the soft tissues, due to insufficient blood supply. As a result, patients can lose both individual phalanges and the whole foot.
For the prevention of cold phalanges of the legs, a healthy lifestyle remains the main thing. It is necessary to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis and heart disease, maintain muscle tissue in tone.
To do this, it is advisable to give up bad habits, eat normally and observe minimal physical activity. Timely visits to the doctor - another measure of reasonable prevention of complications.