Blood from the nose in medical terminology is called epistaxis. This phenomenon is considered quite common, and the reasons why the nose goes bleeding can be very diverse. Deviation occurs in both an adult and a child.
Often this kind of damage is the result of mechanical damage to the integrity of the nose after an impact, bruise, fall from a height. But it also happens in a person who has not been exposed to external negative influences, blood runs every day. Then the presented deviation should not only be sought, how to stop, but also additionally examined for diseases, with bleeding as the main symptom.
Types of symptom classifications
If the blood went during pregnancy, at night in a teenager, or simply by blowing a nose, you should first give the victim first aid. But when the phenomenon repeats on a regular basis in the morning and does not stop for a long time, then this is an occasion to refuse treatment at home. It will be more effective to turn to a therapist who will tell you what to do in such emergency situations, and also tells you what diagnostics will allow you to understand what repetitive pathological signs mean.
Schematically, all bleeding with nasal localization can be divided into two categories: anterior, posterior. Human physiology is taken as the basis for the presented filtering format. Many are interested in whether it can happen that both types unite. The specified option takes place in case of extensive injuries. Only knowledge of how to call an ambulance and the rules for emergency assistance will help here.
According to medical statistics, often blood flows from the Kisselbach plexus, which ranks it in the anterior section. About 90% of clinical cases involve damage to the dense submucosal cavernous venous network. Small capillaries, arterioles are hidden in it, designed to provide the front section of the cartilage with sufficient nutrition. If blood flowed from one nostril, leaves in drops, then most likely this indicates damage to the plexus.
There is no particularly difficult action to make the epistaxis less significant. If coagulation is good, then the red crusts are baked in a few minutes. A side effect may be dryness inside the cavity, as well as complaints that the head hurts. Severe headache also occurs with low blood pressure. Then local therapy, as with a cold, can not do. Comprehensive treatment will be required, which can last more than one year. An identical approach is provided if the patient is diagnosed with chronic high blood pressure.
Much less often, in approximately 10% of the total number of cases, epistaxis begins due to damage to the large arterial branches, or the middle section of the nose. With significant injuries, even bleeding from the mouth, ears, eyes is possible. They fix a similar deviation not only in adult males, but also in rats and cats.
Sudden onset of heavy blood loss can even be fatal if help is not provided on time. The jet enters the throat, blocking normal breathing, causing suffocation.
Another format for classifying anomalies is the separation by volume of how much blood is being spilled, to which snot is sometimes added:
In the first case, the girls or the elderly lose only a few milliliters. This very often happens with a cold, when you blow your nose, while sneezing. After a couple of minutes only a dried red crust reminds of an unpleasant incident.
This is explained by the fact that at a temperature constantly functioning vessels fail faster. Here we need immunomodulating therapy, which will eliminate the problematic symptoms at a fundamental level.
Of the consequences, only the fact that the patient can be chased by a characteristic "iron" smell, as well as panic that engulfs little girls due to an unexpected attack, can be distinguished here.
When the fluid leaves in clots, but the total volume is not more than 700 milliliters, and the patient complains of a sharp deterioration in well-being, these are signs of a mild severity. In total, a person at this stage will not lose more than 12% of the total amount of biological fluid. The phenomenon is diagnosed with sinus, when the nose is stuffed up, and then doctors began to wash the sinuses. Epistaxis of this type also provides for the fact that together with the cow, the remaining pus has come out, which no tablets can take.
Among other markers of moderate damage are:
- flies before the eyes;
- rapid pulse.
This is possible even in infants, cats, in the early stages of pregnancy in women.
The average degree involves blood loss of up to one and a half liters. Only knowledge of which doctor to go to will help here, because even after half an hour it does not get better. Here it will be necessary to block the losses until the doctor arrives at the scene. Believe the advice of the townsfolk, which they post on the forum, especially not worth it. It is necessary to immediately seek qualified help, since other signs manifest themselves against the background of the main symptom:
- noise in ears.
Severe epistaxis implies the loss of more than 20% of the total amount of biological fluid. An attack can begin during sleep, in the evening and not go for a long time. It is impossible to block such a stream on its own, so the stop should be done by specialists.
Massive hemorrhage has a bad effect on changes in blood pressure, causing the victim to experience hemorrhagic shock. It becomes inhibited, suffers from impaired consciousness, an acute deficiency in the supply of nutrients to internal organs, which within a few minutes causes a faint.
The indicated option can happen both in a boy who has hit and in an adult. If nothing is done, then death is inevitable. Difficulties are added by the fact that the victim is coughing, the dark thick liquid does not dry, pouring into the throat.
Provocateurs of nosebleeds
Most inhabitants sometimes encounter this symptom, which occurs during acute respiratory viral infections, blowing your nose with severe pressure, and after hitting the face. To consider all the most common primary sources of why you suddenly have to deal with epistaxis, doctors divided them into two camps:
Local factors include injury, which often happens to those who consume alcohol in exorbitant amounts. During intoxication, a person is less oriented in space, which leads to falls.
The same outcome awaits those who unsuccessfully removed the nasal crusts. Sometimes when combing from the inside of the cavity, just a yellow ichor exudes. This also indicates that there was a trauma to the mucous membrane.
The local category includes the difference in barometric pressure, which is typical for people with unusual professions like pilots or climbers. But their sense of congestion does not cause serious panic, because experts preliminary work to strengthen the system by taking vitamins. Additionally, people with dangerous professions pass a special analysis.
Among other aspects of this kind that occur even in the third trimester of pregnancy, there are:
- a plethora of mucous that happens from drops;
- inhalation of narcotic substances that additionally adversely affect the heart, liver;
- congenital abnormalities such as nasal septum curvature, which guarantees bleeding at least several times a year;
- malignant, benign neoplasms of oncological nature.
And with cancer, there are possible cases when black blood just drips a little from the nose, which even the number one folk remedy, hydrogen peroxide, will not stop. And it also happens that a person began to be additionally disturbed by nausea, a feeling that his nose was clogged, profuse blood loss. It does not help ordinary vasoconstrictor drugs. We will have to undergo a comprehensive diagnosis in order for the doctor to prescribe specific pills, a course of chemotherapy if necessary.
Among other reasons of an atypical nature, inhalation of cold air, sunstroke, which also makes one sick, surgical intervention, incorrect placement of an oxygen catheter are distinguished.
But if local factors prevail in a kitten, rat, rabbit, calf, other animals, then most people are still victims of systemic aspects. They apply even to a newborn baby, one-year-old son, daughter, husband, elderly grandparents, a woman bearing a fetus at 40 weeks. Here, the norm indicators deviate due to:
- arterial hypertension;
- vascular lesions, which are outwardly expressed in the fact that bruises do not pass for a long time;
- blood diseases that become deadly, even if the person simply picks up the nasal cavity;
- alcohol abuse;
- vitamin deficiency;
- heart diseases, on the background of which hemoglobin also falls.
Epistaxis happens a little less directly in the classroom, and the victim does not have the slightest assumption, what is the reason for this. Doctors recommend such patients to be diagnosed for the search for diseases of the connective tissue. Properly compiled program of what to take, will save the patient from blood flow literally stream.
A large percentage of clinical cases fall on nosebleeds, provoked by:
- taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs;
- hemorrhagic diathesis;
- kidney disease;
- heavy physical exertion;
- infectious diseases like HIV;
- hormonal disruptions.
Doctors say that from time to time problems are closely related to psychosomatics, when she becomes nervous before menstruation. There are also those patients who complain that they have oozing out nasal sinuses only in spring. But this does not mean that it is dangerous for such victims to go out at this time of year. Most likely, a little blood is released due to the classic spring vitamin deficiency, and the situation is aggravated each time the cavity is washed to get rid of allergenic particles of plant pollen.
Some people complain that brown blood poured after coffee, suggesting that the victim was a victim of oncology. In fact, this hardly hints at a polyp, but only tells about problems with pressure, because caffeine is a strong stimulator of changes in blood pressure. If you overdo it with the strength of the drink, you can even earn a swoon, which is important for hypertensive patients.
First aid measures
When it comes to the release of biological fluid after a puncture, where there is no risk of gushing blood flow through the ears, you can do the provision of first aid at home.
The most important thing is never to follow the popular advice that it is necessary to throw your head back. This will only worsen the overall clinical picture. It is better to put aside folk remedies, and instead put the person on the bed, slightly raising the head end of the bed, and turn his head to the side. If you tilt it will open up the airways, which can get into the discharge.
If there was no concussion, and the losses are minimal, then it is enough:
- provide fresh air;
- apply cold to the nose bridge.
If the incident happened in the winter, then you can even use the snow by folding it in a bag and attaching it to the bridge of the nose. You can hold a cold bag for no more than ten minutes. Blowing nose is prohibited, as well as swallowing blood. When the characteristic taste persists, the accumulation of saliva, mucus with bloody clots spit.
In the same way, it is worthwhile to act if heat, a weak blow, a state when you are ill, became the catalyst for the deterioration of health When pouring after a weightlifter training, the powerlifter must adhere to the standard algorithm.
But if the stream literally lasts an hour already, then it is necessary to use more radical measures. They include the creation of a tampon from sterile cotton, which is wetted in hydrogen peroxide 3%.
With a cold in a three-year-old baby, it is recommended not to soak turundu in peroxide, but to lubricate it with petroleum jelly. A similar measure is aimed at mitigating dry mucous membranes, which have to deal with bleeding daily during illness.
With a sunstroke received at school on the beach, a person is transferred to a cool place, laying wet cold tissue on his face. Ice is applied to the bridge of the nose to cool the skin quickly.
According to the standard instructions, you need to act if the problem occurs when you cry, quit smoking and the body is rebuilt due to allergies. When crying, you don’t even have to look for what to drink, it is enough to help locally, periodically expecting the blood accumulating in the oral cavity.
But if you feel dizzy, purulent discharge is traced, pink blood is constantly whipping, and the fatigue weakens, as if by a hangover, then you should not delay visiting a doctor.
Pet owners like a hamster always refer their pets to the veterinarian after they find bleeding, but often ignore their own diagnosis.
In order not to reach the point when the back of the head is literally about to fall apart, and the temples are cracking, you need to see a doctor in time. Those who are especially complaining of diarrhea, suffer from otitis media, cirrhosis are at particular risk. Sometimes uncontrolled blood flow is a side effect of overstrain from childbirth. Regardless of what served as the primary source of defeat, you need to seem to a specialist. He will prescribe diagnostics after first aid in the hospital. Analyzes include platelet testing, other specific testing.
In place of the victim will produce tamponade. So called the introduction of tampons, pre-prescribed hemostatic means, directly into the nasal cavity. In the absence of significant progress, cauterization of bleeding vessels is possible. An unusual ointment, or rather, a liquid agent based on acids can help in this.
In some clinics, it is preferable to influence the walls of the affected vessels with ultrasonic disintegration, laser therapy instruments, liquid nitrogen, and electrocoagulation.
With repeated attacks, surgical intervention is recommended, allowing you to bandage large vessels. During the operation, the surgeon will also work on the detachment of the periosteum, which provokes vascular desolation.
It's one thing when a child managed to break a nose and cut the gums. It requires local treatment, because the situation is unlikely to be repeated on a daily basis. But when unpleasant symptoms make itself felt too often, you need to seek the advice of a therapist.
Otherwise, the feeling of discomfort, accompanied by a nasty taste, will quickly become the reason for a general breakdown.A systematic repetition of the clinical picture is a signal of the body that some disease has struck the organs. The victim's task is to find the source of the pathology at an early stage of development.