Hypertensive crisis is one of the most dangerous and common complications of hypertension. This condition is a serious threat to the health and life of the patient and requires emergency care, which must be provided to the victim as quickly as possible. Hypertensive crises occur in approximately one percent of patients who suffer from arterial hypertension, and the duration of hypertension can be observed for several hours or even several days.
General concept and symptoms
Hypertensive crisis - a sudden increase in blood pressure. For each patient there are individual indicators for which he will have symptoms of hypertensive crisis. Some people experience a sharp deterioration in systolic pressure, when exceeding up to 160 mm Hg, while others feel a deterioration in their health at rates above 200 mm Hg.
Hypertension is a disease that most often develops among women in the postmenopausal period. Also, a hypertensive crisis occurs in diseases that are accompanied by symptomatic hypertension (pheochromocytoma, kidney disease, diabetes, etc.). Predisposing factors for increasing blood pressure are usually: stress; sudden change in weather and climatic conditions; frequent use of alcohol; discontinuation of antihypertensive drugs.
Among the most common symptoms of hypertensive crisis it is worth noting: the sudden appearance of a feeling of fear and anxiety; flushing, swelling of the face; appearance of fever, tremor; cold sweat; blurred vision; vomiting; headache; cardiopalmus.
Hypertensive crisis - first aid
As a rule, all cardiologists are trying to train their patients suffering from hypertension, the primary actions required at the onset of hypertensive crisis.
However, many people themselves know how to cope with this dangerous condition, and do not even seek medical help. Sometimes, the development of a hypertensive crisis may be the primary manifestation of the development of hypertension, which people previously could not know.
So, what should be done to implement the first emergency aid in the development of hypertensive crisis:
- It is important to move the patient to a sitting or horizontal position and to ensure maximum peace and quiet.
- Be sure to provide fresh air by opening the window and freeing the neck.
- It is extremely important for the patient to breathe properly. To this end, he is recommended to take several deep slow breaths and exhalations.
- Unfortunately, in this situation, an increased feeling of anxiety can only contribute to a further increase in blood pressure. To calm the patient, you can give him Corvalol or Valerian tincture or other sedative and sedative. Panic is a bad ally not only in a hypertensive crisis, but also in any other emergency situations.
- On the forehead of the patient to put a cold towel or a heating pad with ice. Just above the feet and on the back of the head can be placed mustard plasters for fifteen to twenty minutes.
- If the crisis is triggered by the transition from one drug to another, it is recommended to take a substance that lowers blood pressure. Also, if the patient is experiencing severe chest pain, severe shortness of breath, it is recommended that you take nitroglycerin tablets and take the floor and, of course, call an ambulance.
While waiting for the arrival of the medical team (if necessary), it is important to take one nitroglycerin tablet with an interval of at least ten minutes (you should not take more than three nitroglycerin tablets at a time).
If hypertension is suspected, blood pressure should be measured every twenty minutes. If the blood pressure, despite the actions taken, does not decrease, and the general condition of the patient deteriorates markedly, it is necessary to urgently contact a specialist for emergency medical care.
In some cases, the crisis will be suppressed only by administering intravenous or intramuscular medications prescribed by the doctor, based on the patient’s general condition. Sometimes, in the presence of complications of the crisis, urgent hospitalization is required.
Causes and types of hypertension
Hypertensive crises are divided into uncomplicated and complex. Uncomplicated crisis is most common in hypertension of the first and second stage. Antihypertensive therapy quickly helps to improve the patient's condition and normalize blood pressure indicators.
Complicated hypertensive crisis is typical for patients with hypertension of the second or third stage. The most common complication is hypertensive encephalopathy, in which transient headache initially occurs, dizziness and other signs of HA. Over time, the symptoms of encephalopathy increase, which can lead to stroke, mental disorders and other disorders associated with cerebrovascular disease. In addition, patients may develop acute renal failure, myocardial infarction, etc.
Preventing hypertensive crisis
A crisis is, in fact, a complication of hypertension, therefore, prevention includes recommendations for people with hypertension: lifestyle changes (weight loss, diet, smoking cessation and alcohol consumption, active exercise); prescribed physician for the treatment of hypertension; routine examination of a cardiologist or doctor at least once every six months; regular blood pressure monitoring; treatment of diseases accompanied by symptomatic arterial hypertension.
In order to avoid the manifestation of the dangerous complications of a hypertensive crisis, the patient himself must control the blood pressure, and also record the indicators in a special diary.
It is equally important to try not to miss a dose of those antihypertensive drugs that are prescribed by a doctor, because literally 1 skip of taking important medications can cause a dangerous jump in blood pressure.