The vast majority of people at least once in their lives faced bruises or penetrating head injuries, blows or shaking, as well as neck injuries resulting from an accident, playing sports, or in everyday life. Applying a bandage is one of the first-aid techniques for neck and head injuries. The dressings can be varied, and their application can have a different effect - from reducing swelling to stopping bleeding. So, bandages can be curative, oppressive and protective, and each type requires certain skills and abilities to apply, as well as basic knowledge of medical care for neck and head injuries.
Types of dressings used in injuries of the head and neck
Applying a bandage to the neck or head may be necessary in different cases - to stop bleeding, to immobilize, for cuts, bruises or scratches. At the same time, the type of dressing, as well as the material used for it, may be different. Particular attention should be paid to injuries and injuries associated with the violation of the integrity of the skin, as well as bleeding and bleeding wounds, as in these cases there is a possibility of infection in the wound.
Therapeutic dressings are specially impregnated with various ointments and therapeutic agents that promote the acceleration of tissue healing. Protective, in turn, protect the place of injury or damage from infection and suppuration. Applying a pressure bandage is one way to stop bleeding.
What can a bandage be made of? The most commonly used dressing material is medical gauze. Its advantage is the availability at any pharmacy, sterility and low price, as well as the naturalness of the material itself. If gauze is not at hand, and help to the victim should be rendered promptly, any clean and natural fabric, preferably white, will do. In order to ensure at least minimal disinfection, the fabric should be ironed on both sides with an iron.
In order for the tissue or gauze to affect blood clotting and promote healing of the wound, it can be impregnated with a special ointment, for example, Levomekol or Baneocin. Between the wound surface and dressing must be placed layer of sterile cotton wool or gauze wipes.
First aid and dressing for neck injuries
Injuries and neck injuries can occur in various cases - during a fall, during diving in shallow water, during various accidents, natural disasters and catastrophes. Injury of the cervical region is easy to identify - the affected person feels pain in the neck, as well as a significant limitation of her mobility. Open wounds are easily identified by the presence of violation of the integrity of the skin.
Such injuries and wounds are dangerous to humans, as the neck, firstly, contains the respiratory tract, and secondly, the spine, the spinal cord, and important arteries pass through it. Overcrowding the blood vessels or spinal cord in the cervical region can cause a person to die.
When giving first aid to a victim with a injured neck, one should not make sudden movements, jolts, bend too much or move the neck intensively. To open the respiratory tract, you can not throw a man's head back - you need to gently grab the chin with your fingers and pull it up.
The most dangerous condition for the victim is bleeding from the cervical artery. Without immediate medical attention, a person will die within minutes. Therefore, even if the victim has no pulse and respiration, and cervical bleeding is observed, the first resuscitation measure will be his stopping, the second - the restoration of respiratory and cardiac activity.
The carotid artery is a paired vessel that is located on the neck and has two branches: left and right. If it is the carotid artery that is damaged, you need to pinch one of its branches with your finger. Next, you need to clamp the wound itself, for example, with a skein of gauze or a bandage, after which a pressure bandage is applied to the victim.
To apply such a bandage on the neck, bandage, gauze or cloth, it is necessary to wind it in a circular motion through the side of the neck where the damage is localized, and through the opposite arm, lifting it up and passing the bandage under it. Another version of the pressure bandage on the neck - with the imposition of tires on the healthy side of the neck.
Fractures of the cervical spine - a condition no less threatening than bleeding, as it can provoke a displacement of the cervical vertebrae, impaired blood circulation, and even suffocation. First of all, the victim should be laid up face down on a hard surface, and completely immobilize the head and neck. If a person does not have breathing and pulse, it is necessary to take resuscitation measures to restore them, that is, to do artificial respiration. In such cases, the Elansky, Bashmakov or Shantsa tires can be applied, as well as a cotton-gauze collar; in addition, a special soft circle or improvised materials, such as clothes, towels, bags, can be used to immobilize the patient.
The Yelansky tire is a collapsible structure that cannot be built from improvised means. For its imposition it is necessary to have a collapsible kit at hand, in addition, you need to have some medical skills. It consists of a wooden base, to which special belts are attached.
Tire Bashmakova also requires two ladder tires, as well as cotton wool and bandages.
A simpler option is a Schantz tire, or a cardboard-gauze collar. For it are necessary:
- cotton wool;
- bandage 14-16 centimeters wide.
The blank, which can be quickly made from cardboard, has dimensions of 430 by 140 millimeters. The cardboard is wrapped with a layer of cotton and a double layer of gauze. The victim's head is gently lifted, a cardboard collar is turned on under it, which is fixed with gauze ties or bandages.
In order to fix the neck with a cotton-gauze collar, it is first wrapped with a thick layer of cotton, and then bandaged around with a bandage. The bandage should not squeeze the organs in the cervical region or interfere with breathing. The width of the cotton wool layer should be such that from above it props up the head and from the bottom it rests tightly on the clothes.
The imposition of immobilizing structures on the neck is a complex process that can be carried out only by someone who has a basic level of medical training. Fixing the tire to the head is difficult, and the imposition of rigid compression joints on the neck is impossible, since it blocks the airways and large cervical vessels.
It is more convenient to carry out all measures for applying immobilizing neck bands together with an assistant who will carefully hold the victim's head, preventing additional injury.
Headbands for head injuries: the basics of first aid
Head injuries are considered one of the most severe injuries, as they are especially dangerous to life. In addition to concussion, a person may be threatened with fractures of the bones of the skull, various types of head injuries. If the victim has a clear or yellow clear fluid from the ears or nose, and bruises under the eyes, this may indicate mechanical damage to the brain.
The main rule of first aid in injuries of the head is to avoid sudden movements, pressure, and infection in the wound. It should be understood that only qualified physicians can provide medical assistance in such difficult cases. You need to check the victim's pulse and breathing, if they are absent, you need to carefully carry out resuscitation measures - artificial respiration, heart massage. If there is a pulse and breathing, the victim should simply be laid on its side to prevent airway obstruction, such as vomiting, and monitor it until the doctors arrive. It is impossible to sit or try to put a person with a head injury on his feet, even if he is conscious.
Applying a headband may be relevant if the person has bleeding that needs to be stopped, as well as if there is an open wound. If foreign bodies are present in the wound — pieces of metal, bones, glass — it is absolutely forbidden to try to remove them. The injured need to apply a bandage using a “bagel” - a rolled up roller made of scrap materials or cotton wool. To do this, cotton wool or fabric is folded “sausage”, wrapped with a layer of gauze or bandage, and then laid around the protruding object. Next, cover the wound with a sterile cloth and bandaged.
The most common types of dressings for head injuries are:
- cruciform on the back of the head;
- eye ligation;
- ligation of the ears;
- Hippocrates cap;
- simple circular dressing.
Cross-shaped bandage on the back of the head. Relevant for wounds and injuries to the back of the head. For its imposition need a long bandage width of 10-12 centimeters. If afflicted with consciousness, he is seated on a chair, facing the bandager. In the right hand is taken the coil of the bandage, in the left - a strip of bandage. The end of the bandage is applied to the back of the head, after which it is wrapped around the head twice clockwise. Bringing a bandage to the neck, it is lowered to the neck, carried out under the ear and wrapped around the head again. It performs several revolutions around the head, blocking the back of the head, followed by two thirds of the time. The bandage ends with a circular movement of the bandage, after which it is tied in the forehead area.
Cap. It is applied if the back of the head or the forehead is damaged, and it is carried out along the scalp. A piece of bandage 80-90 centimeters long is located on the parietal part of the head, the patient holds the ends. The coil of the bandage is in the right hand, the beginning of the bandage is in the left. The bandage is held around the forehead and the neck in a circle, then it is guided along the frontal part up to the tie, the loop bends around the loop, then the bandage is led through the nape to the opposite side to the other tie. The bandage wraps around the string again and leads to the opposite edge, until the entire scalp is covered. After that, the bandage is wrapped around one of the ends of the string, and fixed with a knot. Under the chin are tied the ends of the bandage, which kept the patient.
Eye ligation. Head injury can also be associated with eye damage. In such cases it is necessary to impose a monocular bandage or fixing circle. Monocular bandage on the back of the head, under the ear and through the cheek, and so on in a circle.
The fixing circle is superimposed by holding a bandage in the form of the letter “X” above and below the ears through both eyes, with a cross on the bridge of the nose.
Bridle. This bandage covers the head almost completely, leaving only the face uncovered. A bandage is wrapped around the forehead and occipital part, then it is brought down to the chin, and the left and right temples are wrapped around it. After that, the bandage is passed through the neck, the head is wrapped, and the end of the bandage is attached to the chin. The material of the dressing is fixed at the temple from the intact side.
Ligation of the ears. A simple type of dressing, which is also called Neapolitan. In order to band the ears, you first need to make several fixing circles with a bandage around the head above the ears, after which you need to go down with a bandage to the affected part of the ear.
Hippocrates cap. A more complex type of dressing, which is applied simultaneously with two gauze or bandages. The first bandage is started in a circle several times, the second is passed through the vault of the skull. In the area of the forehead two bandages are found. After overlapping them on each other, the second bandage is passed through the first one, and is sent to the back of the head. Behind the second bandage is passed under the first. Usually made 3-4 circle with each bandage at the same time.
Simple circular dressing. It is superimposed if the affected person has slight damage in the forehead, occipital or temporal part of the head. A bandage is placed on the crown, the ends hang down. Bandaging is performed in a circle, after which the material is fixed in the forehead area.
Under any type of dressing directly on the wound, it is necessary to put gauze sterile napkins or cotton pads that will block the wound surface and protect it from further damage. The edges of the wound need to be treated with antiseptic drugs - chlorhexidine, peroxide solution, iodine or "green." It is not recommended to inject the cauterizing preparations into the wound itself so as not to cause a painful shock. If there is dirt in the wound, it can be washed with a solution of peroxide or purified boiled water.
First aid, which can be given to a wounded person with injuries to the neck and head, is to assess his condition and the factors that threaten him. If the victim has no pulse and breathing, first of all, it is necessary to carry out possible resuscitation measures. If he has extensive bleeding, he should be stopped before resuscitation. Cervical bleeding is especially dangerous, since, firstly, they can be the cause of heavy blood loss and death of the affected, and secondly, it is extremely difficult to stop them in the absence of medical care. In case of head and neck injuries, if possible, the patient should be immobilized as much as possible, the most acute conditions (bleeding, lack of breathing) should be removed or mitigated, and then the help of the medical team should be waited.