X-ray of the dentition, which shows the condition of the teeth and their roots, is called the orthopantomogram (abbreviated OPT and OPTG). Patients who have turned 15 years old are sent for diagnosis (in rare cases from 5-6 years). The study allows to evaluate the initial condition of the teeth, as well as the upper and lower jaw. With the help of a panoramic survey, the condition of tissues, bones and fillings is assessed. Panoramic image shows tumors, cysts, caries and inflammatory processes that the dentist may not notice during a routine examination.
Types of OPTG
Panoramic snapshot of all teeth can be film and digital. The film orthopantomogram is very rarely prescribed, since digital equipment gives a very small dose of radiation, which prevents many diseases and pathological changes from being seen on an X-ray. Film diagnostics is carried out unless it is absolutely necessary for pregnant women, so as not to harm the health of the future mother and baby.
Digital diagnostics is carried out with the help of an X-ray apparatus of an orthopantomograph, the images are displayed on a computer screen, then printed and stored on electronic media.
To date, there are many devices that issue intraoral images and OPTG with minimal risk to human health. In the research field, 3D orthopantomographs appear - devices, with the help of which volumetric images with minimal inaccuracies and distortions are obtained.
After taking an x-ray snapshot of all the teeth, you can determine the root cause of the pain in the teeth and begin an effective treatment.
What is an orthopantomogram for?
The procedure is carried out with the aim of studying the oral cavity to identify wisdom teeth, caries, hidden diseases and inflammatory processes. He is appointed by an OPTG dentist before the onset of surgery.
An x-ray specialist will be able to detect periodontitis in any of the stages, caries under a filling or a crown, cysts, sinusitis, tumors (benign and malignant), pathological changes in tissues, neoplasms and foreign bodies. The examination will help assess the condition of the teeth, gums, maxillary sinuses and sinuses, root canals, bone tissue, maxillary sinuses, temporomandibular joints. Through research, the dentist will be able to detect the complications of traumatic injuries.
A panorama made for the purpose of diagnosis and during the therapy of the patient allows to evaluate and monitor the effectiveness of the treatment. Orthopantomogram - the best painless way to help detect not fully cut teeth, to establish the location and inclination of the teeth. In case of disease, periodontitis due to the panoramic image you can find out the depth, location and parameters of periodontal pockets.
OPT is needed in order to determine the height and density of the bone, assess the quality of the sealed canals, identify inflammation and neoplasms (cysts, fibroids and granulomas).
The study should be carried out before the correction of the bite, the installation of prostheses and implants and before absolutely any surgical operation in the oral cavity. OPTG will help to draw up a strategy for therapeutic treatment, assess the topographic features of the tooth and identify possible errors, such as perforation, a piece of instrument in the root canal or tooth.
The procedure can be performed 2-3 times during therapeutic treatment, depending on the complexity of the disease found. The appointment of a panorama of all teeth during their treatment will reduce the risk of an inflammatory process. If the image is done correctly, then the jaw should look like a wide smile. If the jaw on a panorama of a different shape, then the study was conducted incorrectly.
The benefits of OPTG
The advantages of diagnosis include:
- a safe procedure that is done even for women during pregnancy and lactation;
- the panorama is stored in the archive of the personal computer, so the dentist can open it at any time to compare with the new image;
- informative examination (as a result, the patient is given an image of both jaws);
- on the computer screen, you can zoom in and increase the desired area, while the quality of the image will not become worse;
- a small dose of radiation, which practically does not harm the patient's well-being.
There are no contraindications for the diagnosis. Doctors with caution sent to the procedure of pregnant women during the formation of fetal organs (first trimester). The permissible rate of panoramic images per year is 100 pieces. Of course, this is very much, but, nevertheless, it is desirable to do OPT only when necessary. Most often, the examination is carried out before and after dental treatment.
Conducting the procedure for children
Low dose of radiation exposure allows diagnostics for children aged 5-6 years and more. In this case, a special exposure mode is used. It lies in the fact that the area of irradiation becomes much smaller, the trajectory of the sensor is adjusted to the small size of the jaw.
Children's panorama allows you to identify the beginnings of the dentition (already permanent), the presence of too closely spaced teeth, to control teething and jaw development. Thanks to the snapshot, the doctor can diagnose adentia. Orthodontist most often recommends a children's panorama.
Stages of the study for adults
Digital radiography of all teeth is done very quickly - in 2-3 minutes. The patient must remove the metal jewelry and designs (earrings, chain, glasses, dentures, hairpins). Before manipulation, a person is put on a special protective cape of lead.
The patient must go to the special equipment and press the chest to the platform. Further, the health worker will tell the patient to bite a plastic tag with all his teeth. At the same time it is necessary to close the lips tightly, and send the tongue to the sky. The specialist will turn on the device, and the sensor will begin to turn around the patient's head. The sensor takes 3-4 shots in a few seconds.
The resulting data is processed by the computer and displays a two-dimensional snapshot. Research results are printed, dropped on a USB flash drive or sent via e-mail. With a panorama should go to your doctor: a dentist or orthodontist.