Medical research and diagnostics

Computed tomography (CT) of the kidneys and urinary tract

Modern diagnostic method of the whole organism is computed tomography (CT). Scanning of the kidneys and urinary tract with a tomograph allows you to detect pathology and hidden diseases. The study provides a detailed diagnosis of the bladder, kidneys, adrenal glands and other tissues that surround the vital organs.

Computed tomography of the kidneys and urinary tract is carried out only on prescription and under the supervision of a radiologist or radiologist. The resulting images taken by the tomograph, allow you to analyze the state of the organs in different planes, because the scanner produces layered 3D images that visualize any infectious, inflammatory and pathological processes.

Symptoms of kidney and urinary tract diseases

The kidneys and urinary tract are essential for the human body. Healthy kidneys are needed for normal functioning of all systems; they perform excretory, metabolic and osmoregulatory functions.

Due to the endogenous and exogenous factors influencing the body, diseases of the kidneys, bladder and urinary tract can develop. To exclude a number of diseases, it is necessary to diagnose the disease in a timely manner. Effectively examine the internal organs and systems using CT.

Factors that can lead to chronic diseases: poor nutrition, severe hypothermia, reduced immune system, bladder injury, chemotherapy, hormonal disruption, chronic fatigue, insomnia, stress and depression, congenital or acquired anomalies (pathologies) of the kidneys and bladder.

Symptoms of impaired kidney and urinary tract: high body temperature (not less than 39 degrees), which lasts for 2-3 days, nausea and vomiting, increased sweating, pain in the lower back and abdominal cavity, pain during urination, loss appetite and body weight, delayed urine, cutting pain in the lower abdomen, scanty painful urine, the appearance of mucus or blood in the urine, burning and itching in the urethra, chills and high blood pressure.

When one or more symptoms appear, one should seek medical help and undergo a series of studies, among which computed tomography of the urinary tract and kidneys is recommended.

Indications for CT

CT scan is a diagnosis that is performed by exposing the body to a small amount of x-rays. Most often, the examination is performed in order to confirm or clarify the diagnosis.

Scanning with a scanner provides an opportunity to identify and study various infectious processes, consequences and complications of injury.

If the patient has characteristic symptoms that indicate the etymology of pathological processes in the urogenital system, you should immediately refer the patient to CT.

Diagnosis is prescribed for: hydronephrosis (persistent progressive expansion of the renal cups and pelvis, which occurs due to a violation of urine outflow), polycystic (primary and secondary), the formation of sand and kidney stones, metastasis (the formation of metastases due to the spread of "infected" cells from primary lesions to healthy tissues), acute renal colic, inflammatory and infectious processes.

A CT scan is needed if the patient has enlarged lymph nodes in the retroperitoneal space or in the pelvic region, before surgery, and after surgery (in order to evaluate the therapy). Computed tomography is recommended for suspected neoplasms, including malignant and benign tumors. When the doctor receives the results of a detailed examination, he can finally refute or confirm the pre-established diagnosis.

Contraindications research

The examination with the help of a tomograph is carried out in two main ways: the first is the classical method, the second is with the addition of a contrast agent. With a satisfactory state of human health, CT can be performed with iodine-containing contrast. The use of contrast during the procedure is necessary in order for the visualization and detailing of the pictures to be several times more accurate and informative.

For CT contraindications include:

  • allergic reaction to iodine;
  • diabetes;
  • kidney and liver failure;
  • heart diseases;
  • psychological disorders that interfere with the procedure.

Computed tomography of the urinary tract and kidneys is undesirable to appoint: women carrying a child; young mothers during lactation; children under 14 years old.

Pregnant women and children are tested only if it is really necessary and the risk is justified.

Computed tomography is strictly prohibited to people with fear of confined space (claustrophobia). If the patient weighs more than 200 kilograms, the examination will not work, because the scanner will not withstand excessive load and will not be able to show reliable results. If a person has metal structures in his body, it is recommended to conduct another type of research.

CT is completely safe and does not cause discomfort. Adverse reactions after the procedure were not detected. A person can become ill (in rare cases) only if CT is done with contrast. The duration of side effects may be accompanied by no more than 30-60 minutes. It is advisable for the patient to drink plenty of pure water and rest on the couch.

The feasibility of computed tomography of the urinary tract and kidneys is determined by the attending physician after examining the history of the disease and receiving the results of the passed tests. The patient comes to the reception to the doctor with the results of blood and urine tests, decoding ultrasound diagnosis.

How to prepare for CT

For the procedure to be successful, you need to prepare for it. First of all it concerns meals. The last meal should be 6-8 hours before the start of diagnosis.

If a patient undergoes a CT scan with intravenous administration of an iodine-containing contrast material, then the procedure should be taken with an empty stomach and intestines (on an empty stomach).

2-3 days before the diagnosis, you should exclude from the diet fatty, fried, salty, peppered foods. It is necessary to abandon the bakery products and carbonated water.

Before the procedure, it is necessary to remove all metal accessories, it is advisable to wear loose clothing that is easily removed and worn.

In order not to risk, you should conduct an allergic test for iodine intolerance. With a positive result (negative reaction is not detected), computed tomography can be performed.

CT sequence

The duration of CT without contrast takes 5-10 minutes, with the addition of a coloring agent - from 20 minutes to half an hour. First of all, the patient is asked to lie down on a special platform that is being advanced. A special substance is inserted through the catheter (if the doctor has prescribed its administration).

After intravenous contrast, several minutes should pass. Then, at the command of a radiologist or radiologist, the table moves into a special chamber. If a person is very afraid, they can give him a special pear, which, if something goes wrong (a panic attack, painful sensations), the patient will squeeze with his hand and the procedure will immediately stop.

Special equipment records the area being surveyed and takes pictures that immediately appear on the computer monitor.

During the diagnosis, you need to listen to the specialist who conducts the procedure: he will say when not to move. To be stationary is necessary in order for 3D images to be clear and not blurry.

After the research, the specialist analyzes the scanned images and decrypts them. The decryption process takes from 15 to 30 minutes. With the conclusion of a specialist, the patient goes to the doctor, who referred him to a computer tomography of the urinary tract and kidneys.

Based on the information received and the radiologist's opinion, the doctor will diagnose and prescribe an effective course of treatment. This may be medical and surgical therapy, depending on the identified disease and its specificity.

Watch the video: Your Radiologist Explains: Computed Tomography CT of the Kidneys (December 2019).