Fennel is an herbaceous plant of the umbelliferous family. Grown as a food, medicinal crop. The birthplace of the plant is Southern Europe, the Mediterranean. In ancient Greece and Rome, fennel identified success, victory. The Saxons attributed the plant to sacred herbs, referred to as the "seed of the meeting." Healers used it to expel evil spirits. Currently, 2 types of plants are grown: ordinary (pharmacy) and Italian (vegetable). The first is cultivated to obtain sweet-spicy greens, the second - for a fleshy sweet stem, root.

The beneficial properties of fennel are known to this day. It has bactericidal, antiviral and expectorant properties, increases lactation in nursing women, calms the nervous system, dilates blood vessels, relieves spastic colitis, stomatitis, pharyngitis.

Fennel spheres of application: agriculture, veterinary medicine, perfumery, culinary, traditional medicine, soap making, winemaking and bakery.

Chemical composition

Fennel exhibits powerful antioxidant properties. It includes kempferol glycosides, quercetin, flavonoids, rutin, malic and succinic acids, sugars. Among phytonutrients, anethole is considered the most important. This substance reduces the inflammatory processes in the body, prevents the growth of cancer cells, protects the liver. The fruits contain fatty (up to 12%) and essential (up to 6%) oils that give a sweet-spicy taste and aromatic smell to the plant. A distinctive feature of the herb is its high vitamin C content (up to 90%).

All parts of the plant are suitable for use, but its seeds are most valued (345 kcal per 100 g).

The components of plant origin exhibit the following actions: diuretic, mild laxative, antiemetic, antispasmodic, choleretic, carminative, expectorant, lactogonous, blood purifying, sedative.

Contrary to popular belief, dill water is made only from a solution of fennel oil and has nothing to do with dill. It is used to combat bloating and colic in children.

Table No. 1 "Nutritional value of fennel seeds"
ComponentsContent in 100 grams of product, grams
Carbohydrates52,3
Alimentary fiber39,8
Squirrels15,8
Fats14,9
Omega 99,91
Essential Amino Acids9,117
Water8,81
Ash8,22
Essential Amino Acids6,178
Omega 61,69
Saturated Fatty Acids0,48
Sterols0,066
Table No. 2 "The chemical composition of fennel seeds"
NameNutrient content in 100 grams of product, milligrams
Vitamins
Ascorbic acid (C)21,0
Niacin (B3)6,05
Pyridoxine (B6)0,47
Thiamine (B1)0,408
Riboflavin (B2)0,353
Beta Carotene (A)0,007
Macronutrients
Potassium1694
Calcium1196
Phosphorus487
Magnesium385
Sodium88
Trace elements
Iron18,54
Manganese6,533
Zinc3,7
Copper1,067

Fennel is used to make soups, drinks, sauces and salads. It is a natural flavor that improves the smell of pickles, pickles. Fennel is harvested for future use: the roots are dug up, frozen or sprinkled with earth and stored as root crops. Leaves are dried and salted.

Beneficial features

Fennel relieves stomach upsets, fights against respiratory diseases, menstrual disorders, anemia, constipation, gas, diarrhea, colic, and eye diseases. The plant contains antacids that neutralize the effect of acid, so it is introduced into the composition of fresheners for the oral cavity and toothpastes. In addition, the fruits of fennel are used in cooking for making pies, puddings, liquors.

Beneficial features:

  1. Eliminates bloating, increased gas formation, has a carminative effect (aspartic acid).
  2. Protects eyes from inflammatory processes, age-related diseases and macular degeneration (vitamin C, arginine, magnesium, cobalt, essential oils). From fennel leaves squeeze the juice, which is instilled. It is used to relieve irritation and eye fatigue.
  3. It has an expectorant effect (anethole and cineole). It is used to treat diseases of the respiratory system, accompanied by coughing attacks.
  4. It has a diuretic effect. Thus, fennel helps to eliminate toxic substances from the body, eliminates bloating and rheumatism.
  5. Increases breast milk production in women during lactation.
  6. Strengthens hair, gives it a natural shine.
  7. Soothes the nervous system, improves memory.
  8. Relieves bouts of renal colic (polymers).
  9. Prevents the formation of anemia (histidine and iron). These compounds are part of enzymes, blood, participate in redox reactions, blood formation, respiration, immunobiological processes, create an oxygen supply in the body.

Iron deficiency anemia leads to the development of psychological and neurological disorders, which are manifested in a change in taste desires, restless legs syndrome, headaches, irritability. With improper treatment, the disease causes the following consequences: deformation of the nervous system, decreased immunity, pathology of epithelial tissue, impaired performance, enlarged liver, swelling of the lower extremities. Reducing the content of red blood cells in the blood increases the load on the heart, which begins to intensively supply organs and tissues with the missing oxygen. As a result, there is a threat of death.

  1. Facilitates the digestion of food by stimulating the secretion of gastric and digestive juices, eliminates bad breath.

Fennel relieves digestive tract disorders.

  1. It quenches pain during menstruation in women, normalizes hormonal levels.
  2. It treats diarrhea caused by the activity of microbes. The composition of fennel essential oil includes cineole and anethole. These components have a disinfecting effect on the human body. In addition, the amino acid histidine improves the breakdown of food, facilitating the course of diarrhea.
  3. Supports peristaltic movements in the intestines. Due to this, plant seeds have a laxative effect on the human body, and grass is used to combat constipation.

It is believed that fennel energizes a person, gives strength. Currently, the product is served in restaurants in India after lunch, as a dessert, to freshen the breath.

Harm to the body

Fennel is a safe product that does not have serious contraindications. Fruits of the plant and preparations based on them are not recommended for people with heart rhythm disorders, prone to allergies. Due to the ability of fennel to enhance uterine tone, it is contraindicated in pregnant women, as well as patients with epilepsy.

Folk recipes

Expectorant

Preparation: 30 g of fennel seeds pour 200 ml of boiling water, leave for 20 minutes, strain. Consume 100 ml four times a day before meals.

Diuretic

Used to relieve swelling. Preparation principle: 5 g of fennel fruit is brewed in 200 ml of water, left in a warm room for 10 minutes, filtered. Drink 150 ml 3 times a day.

Carminative, expectorant

The principle of creation: brew 30 g of fennel in 200 ml of boiling water, place in a water bath for a quarter of an hour. Cool, strain, bring to the original volume (add water). Before use, the infusion is heated. Take 4 times a day, 100 ml (adults) and 15 ml (children).

To eliminate excess gas formation and treat dry cough, fennel oil is used. The product is a colorless liquid with a strong odor (like anise). It is obtained by treating the fruit with water vapor. Fennel oil has a bitter camphor taste with sweet notes. 60% fluid consists of anethole.

Sedative

Healing broth is prepared as follows: 5 g of fruit pour 250 ml of water, cook for 30 minutes on low heat, filter. Take 50 ml (adults) and 10 ml (infants) before meals 4 times a day.

Lactogon drug

Fennel tea is a refreshing drink that enhances milk production in lactating women. For its preparation, 10 g of seeds are brewed in 150 boiling water, insisted for 5 minutes. Drink 4 times a day. To achieve a pronounced effect, take regularly in strictly prescribed doses (600-800 ml) throughout the day.

Fennel oil

Effect on the body:

  • removes toxins;
  • eliminates constipation and diarrhea;
  • normalizes the digestive tract;
  • removes bloating;
  • restores the liver, kidneys, spleen after an overdose of alcohol;
  • activates the production of estrogen by the body and the activity of the endocrine glands;
  • relieves premenstrual conditions and symptoms of menopause;
  • calms the nervous system.

Fennel oil exhibits aphrodisiac properties and has an antifungal effect. Interestingly, after air sanitation in the room (2 drops of funds per 5 square meters), the number of microbes decreases by 5 times.

The aroma of oil has a sedative effect on the central nervous system: relieves complexes, fears, obsessive thoughts, gives a feeling of harmony, independence, freedom. It is used in folk and traditional medicine, cosmetology inside and out in the form of compresses, applications, rubbing, massage mixtures.

Fennel oil is used for:

  • aromatization of air;
  • enrichment of cosmetics (tonics, creams, masks, shower gels, scrubs, lotions, shampoos) with useful biologically active substances;
  • treatment of influenza, pneumonia, pharyngitis, bronchitis, acute respiratory viral infections, acute respiratory infections (inhalation);
  • improving cardiac conduction, lowering blood pressure, relieving arrhythmias;
  • stimulation of the digestive tract;
  • dissolution of kidney stones;
  • relieve nausea, colic, hiccups, gag reflexes.

In cosmetology, fennel oil is used as a powerful antioxidant agent that has a rejuvenating effect on the dermis. It increases skin elasticity, smoothes wrinkles, and inhibits the aging of body cells. Oil nourishes, tones the dermis, increases its elasticity, especially in the hips, bust, abdomen and relieves cellulite. The tool prevents acne, eliminates acne in adolescents.

Face and neckline lifting mask

Her appointment is a skin tightening. With regular use, small wrinkles are smoothed out, the facial contour becomes sharper, the dermis acquires elasticity and firmness, and the double chin “leaves”. In the skin cells, the processes of active production of collagen and elastin are launched, which support its youth and beauty.

Indications for use: age-related age spots, dry skin, facial wrinkles, second chin, yellowness and grayness of the dermis, blurred facial contour.

Homemade lifting masks with fennel have a smoothing, firming and anti-aging effect, therefore they are suitable for caring for a mature, withering dermis.

Contraindications: obesity, open wounds on the surface, age up to 30 years, vascular, skin diseases, plastic surgery performed up to six months, intolerance to the components of the mask.

Ingredients: white clay (15 g), egg yolk (1 pc), jojoba oil (15 ml), fennel, pink and neroli (1 drop each). Mix all components, apply to cleansed skin, take a horizontal position (to avoid sagging dermis), lie down for 30 minutes. Wash off the mask with contrasting water. The procedure is performed 2-3 times in 7 days for 1 month.

Anti-cellulite massage oil

It eliminates fatty tubercles and orange peel due to the acceleration of metabolism, increased blood flow, normalization of water-salt balance.

Components of the anti-cellulite product: olive oil (50 ml), grapefruit, patchouli, lime, fennel (5 drops each). Mix the resulting composition thoroughly, rub into problem areas 2 times a day for the first week and 1 time for the second. When cellulite resolves to apply oil at least 3 times in 10 days as a prophylaxis. If an additional ingredient, clay, is introduced into this formulation, the product can be used for cosmetic wraps.

Eye cream

It fights against the harbingers of old age - wrinkles that appear after 35 years, nourishes the delicate dermis near the eyes, and has a rejuvenating effect. As a basis for anti-aging cream, any baby cream (15 ml) is suitable, which is preheated in a water bath and 4 drops of myrrh and fennel oil are added. The composition is applied on the eyelids 1 hour before bedtime.

Nourishing face and hand mask

It activates metabolic processes, relieves irritation, improves its blood circulation, slows down age-related changes, relieves fatigue, softens, and rejuvenates the dermis. To prepare, mix cottage cheese (5 g), quince pulp (1 pc), fennel oil (3 drops), egg yolk (1 pc). The fruit is mashed in a blender, the remaining ingredients are introduced into the resulting slurry, mixed, applied to the hands and face for 15 minutes. After a quarter of an hour, wash off with water, moisturize.

Dill water

After birth in the digestive tract of the baby, the process of adaptation of the digestive system to the use of breast milk or mixture begins. Because of this, almost all children in a month have intestinal colic caused by bloating and excessive gas formation. To alleviate the condition of the baby, dill water comes to the rescue. It is a solution of fennel oil (0.1%). Absolutely safe for children from birth. It is interesting that the fennel tincture got its name due to the fact that the grass is popularly called "pharmacy dill."

Beneficial features:

  • relaxes spasms of smooth muscles;
  • is a diuretic;
  • stimulates the production of beneficial microscopic flora;
  • removes putrefactive formations;
  • reduces pressure on the intestinal wall;
  • dilates blood vessels;
  • relieves inflammatory processes;
  • improves bile secretion, kidney function, digestion;
  • possesses antibacterial properties;
  • removes sputum when coughing;
  • increases the passage in the bronchi;
  • relieves constipation;
  • normalizes sleep, calms the nervous system;
  • promotes healing of wounds, ulcers;
  • relieves pain.

Dill water is sold in pharmacies, while it can be made independently at home.

Cooking principle:

  1. Grind dry fennel seeds (5 g) in a blender or coffee grinder, pour into a glass.
  2. Pour in hot water (250 ml).
  3. Leave to infuse for 45 minutes, filter. Store no more than a day.

Ready dill water is added to the infant formula or expressed milk no more than 5 ml (1 teaspoon) and given to the baby 3 times a day, watching his reaction. If necessary, the dosage is increased up to 6 times a day.

From two weeks to a month, it is recommended that newborn infants drip 15 drops of Fennel solution into the tongue. After normalizing the digestion process, dill water is canceled. As a rule, by the age of 6 months, intestinal colic ceases to disturb the baby, because his body has already adapted to a new life and copes well with the "processing" of milk.

With bloating, upset stools and loss of appetite, dill water does not always help. In this case, you should consult a doctor.

An analogue of dill water is the drug "Plantex" made from fennel seed extract. This is a granular herbal product with carminative properties. It enhances intestinal motility, increases the secretion of gastric juice, improves the passage of gases, normalizes digestion. The pellets from a Plantex sachet are dissolved in warm boiled water (100 ml). The entire volume is divided into 3 equal portions, given to children up to a year.

Outdoor cultivation

Fennel has a thick, spindle-shaped, rod root. The stem is erect, branched. Cirrus dissected leaves. The plant reaches up to 2 m in height. The fruit is ovate-oblong with pronounced blunt ribs, elongated at the edges. Petals broadly ovoid, yellow, notched at the apex. Grass is propagated by sowing seeds or by dividing a bush.

Landing requirements

The timing

Fennel ripens quickly, so it can be rooted throughout the warm season. He does not tolerate long daylight hours. To get a crop, the plant is planted in the ground from April 15 to the end of May and from August 15 to September 15. To get planting material for the next year, wait until the seeds fully ripen. You can get them only from early spring sowing (end of April). Otherwise, fennel is grown in seedlings in pots at home. Among the sprouted sprouts, the strongest is selected, which is rooted in open ground. In order for the plant to take root, the beds are covered with a film.

The soil

Fennel grows well on loamy, sandy loamy soils and chernozem. In the wild, it is found on weedy places, stones, in the foothills and steppes. However, to obtain a high yield, the soil for sowing must be moist, loose and fertile. To do this, humus, sand, sawdust, compost, dolomite flour and ash are introduced into the soil.

A place

For landing, choose a sunny or slightly shaded place. The optimum temperature for growing fennel is 16-20 degrees above zero. When the indicator decreases to 7 degrees or increases to 24 degrees, growth slows down.

The plant is recommended to be planted near cabbage or cucumbers, since they are also hygrophilous. In addition, fennel essential oils repel aphids, thereby protecting vegetables. The plant should not be planted in the immediate vicinity with beans, beans, tomato, spinach and pepper.

Seed planting

Fennel fruits are elongated seeds of greenish-brown color, size 3 mm x 10 mm. With early spring planting blooms in July. Seeds ripen in September. Their collection comes from umbrellas.

First of all, it is necessary to moisten and feed the soil. On 1 sq.m. future beds contribute 0.5 kg of ash and a bucket of humus, compost. If the soil is too depleted, ready-made liquid fertilizers are additionally added. Seeds are buried 2 cm into the ground, observing a row spacing of 40 cm. The first sprouts appear after 3 weeks, since the essential oils slow the penetration of moisture into the kernels, as a result, their growth is inhibited. Seedlings thin out. The distance between plants should not be less than 15 cm.

Primary requirements:

  1. Adequate hydration. Remember, fennel loves moisture. Without regular watering, vegetable varieties will not produce heads of cabbage, and the plant will stop growing and begin to die. The soil should always be moist. In dry weather, fennel is irrigated every other day, and in autumn, in the rainy season, as needed.
  2. Removal of peduncles in the absence of the purpose of collecting seeds.
  3. Loosening the earth, weeding weeds, mulching. These operations will help to maintain moisture in the soil and relative purity in the beds.
  4. The spinning of vegetable varieties. The procedure improves the setting of heads of cabbage.
  5. Feeding chicken manure, organics, ash during the season.

On greens, a medicinal variety of fennel is harvested when the root base is not more than 1 cm in diameter, without waiting for the flowering culture. The top is cut off, used fresh or dried, frozen, added to preservation. Harvesting a vegetable variety occurs during the period when the cabbage head reaches a size of 10 cm. After that, it is consumed immediately or placed for storage in a dark, cool and humid room. In the second case, the head of cabbage is cleaned of leaves, the stems are trimmed, 10 cm of petioles are left, without touching the roots.

Conclusion

Fennel is a perennial spindle-shaped herb with an erect, round stem, narrow leaves and a grooved petiole. It is cultivated in America, China, Moldova, Ukraine, France, Poland, the Mediterranean, Transcaucasia, Central Asia, Argentina, Italy. There are 2 types of plants: Italian (vegetable) and ordinary (pharmacy dill). All parts of the culture are suitable for food, but seeds are of the greatest value.

Fennel is known for its carminative, antifungal, lactogonous, expectorant, disinfectant properties. Preparations based on it are used to treat insomnia, cough, flatulence, abdominal pain, bronchitis, pneumonia, irritable bowel syndrome, colds, worms, viral, eye, and kidney diseases. Fennel essential oil is used in cosmetology to care for fading derma. This is a powerful sedative with a sedative effect on the central nervous system. Dill water and medicines (Plantex) are prepared from fennel fruits to eliminate intestinal colic and increased gas formation in children.

In addition to its beneficial properties, the culture has a characteristic aroma like anise and a sweet-pungent taste. Due to this, it is widely used in cooking for preparing first and second courses, drinks, pickles, marinades, sauces and salads. Contraindicated during pregnancy, epilepsy, heart disease, allergies.

Watch the video: Fennel 101 - How To Buy, Store, Prep & Work With Fennel (December 2019).

Loading...