Nutrition for hypertension is part of antihypertensive treatment aimed at lowering blood pressure. If you do not control the diet, the disease will only progress. The most common causes of death among hypertensive patients are: pathologies of the heart (strokes, myocardial infarction), renal failure, complications of the nervous system.
The goals of diet therapy: correction of metabolic disorders (especially cholesterol), improving the functional state of the heart muscle, normalizing blood coagulation parameters, increasing the elasticity of blood vessels, increasing the synthesis of neuroregulatory hormones (serotonin and dopamine, preventing mood swings).
Hypertension is a pathology of the cardiovascular system, characterized by a persistent increase in blood pressure. Today every third inhabitant of the planet (mainly people of the older age group) suffers from an ailment.
Millimeters of mercury are considered per unit of blood pressure. The value of arterial parameters is expressed by two numbers: large (systolic) and lower (diastolic). Moreover, the first value is fixed during the maximum contraction of the heart muscle, and the second - at the time of complete relaxation of the myocardium.
Normally, systolic pressure varies between 100 - 125 millimeters of mercury, diastolic pressure in the range of 70 - 85. If these indicators exceed 140 (upper) and 90 (lower) units, arterial hypertension occurs.
In the pharmaceutical industry, it is customary to distinguish 3 degrees of severity of pathology.
For this stage of the disease, frequent spasmodic pressure drops (short) are characteristic. At the same time, the systolic indicator varies between 140 - 159 units, and the diastolic indicator in the range of 90 - 99 units.
For the correction of preclinical hypertension, it is advisable to use folk remedies (since medications are not required).
The second degree of pathology is accompanied by an increase in the upper pressure to 179 millimeters of mercury, and the lower to 109 units.
To reduce arterial values, pharmaceuticals (hypotension) are used. In the absence of proper therapy, a hypertensive crisis is possible, since the indicators are for a long time at the border (upper) mark.
At the 3rd stage of the disease, systolic pressure exceeds 180 units, and diastolic pressure 110. To stabilize arterial parameters, you can only use medications.
If the disease is not stopped for a long time, irreversible changes develop in the "target organs" (kidneys, heart, brain, eye fundus vessels). At the same time, uncontrolled hypertension entails severe complications (strokes, encephalopathy, heart attacks, cognitive impairment, dementia, renal failure, microalbuminuria).
Symptoms characteristic of the first two stages of the pathology:
- tinnitus (congestion);
- puffiness of the face;
- "double vision" in the eyes;
- swelling of the eyelids.
At the third stage of the pathology, the following disorders occur:
- pain in the heart;
- feeling of lack of air;
- redness of the skin;
- impaired coordination of movements;
- cognitive impairment (decreased memory, attention);
- visual impairment;
- "weakness" in the limbs.
Remember, timely diagnosis of the disease will help to avoid serious complications: stroke, heart attack, heart failure.
The main principles of nutrition
To maintain good health, hypertensive patients should pay special attention to diet. Remember, the health of the patient in 80% depends on compliance with the prescriptions of the doctor and diet therapy.
Nutrition rules for hypertension:
- Limit daily intake of salt. Given that NaCl enhances the "retention" of fluid in the body, the consumption of large doses of seasoning is fraught with edema of the tissues surrounding the capillaries. In this case, due to increased pressure on the arteries, increased blood flow from the cardiac cavities (the beginning of the development of hypertension). However, the product cannot be completely excluded from the hypertensive day menu (due to the possible accumulation of nitrogenous compounds in blood plasma). The optimal portion of salt is 4 - 5 grams per day. To improve the taste of food, you can use spices (basil, dill, garlic, parsley, onions), cranberry and lemon juice.
- Exclude animal fats from the daily menu. The most common cause of high blood pressure is vascular blockage with "bad" cholesterol. To improve patency of capillaries, it is extremely important to refuse food that impairs lipid metabolism. Namely, from: egg yolks (hard-boiled), offal, sausages, lard, whole milk, cream, hard vegetable oils (coconut, palm), processed cheese, fatty meats.
- Enrich your diet with foods containing potassium and magnesium. Hypertension, in 70% of cases, is accompanied by massive edema, circulatory failure, impaired cholesterol metabolism. To minimize these problems in the daily diet of the patient include potassium and magnesium. These elements improve myocardial function (including increase its endurance), accelerate the elimination of excess fluid from tissues, have a relaxing effect on arteries, reduce smooth muscle spasm, and prevent the accumulation of atherosclerotic plaques on the walls of capillaries.
Natural sources of potassium are dried apricots, bananas, prunes, potatoes (baked), melon, watermelon, raisins, pumpkin, rose hips (fruits), avocados.
Magnesium is present in large quantities in bran, cereals (oat, barley, buckwheat, wheat), leafy greens (parsley, lettuce), vegetables (carrots, beets), nuts (almonds, hazelnuts, walnuts).
- Exclude alcohol, nicotine, caffeinated drinks from the diet. While taking stimulants, the majority of hypertensive people have a faster pulse and the upper parts of the brain are overexcited. Due to the increased load on the cardiovascular system, blood pressure indicators "grow" up.
- Replace simple carbohydrates with complex ones. Saccharides are the main suppliers of energy to the human body. With the consumption of simple carbohydrates (sugar, confectionery, jam), a sharp increase in blood glucose occurs, which leads to the release of large doses of insulin. As a result, its excess is transformed into adipose tissue (since monosaccharides in the diet of modern humans are 4 times higher than normal). In addition, excessive intake of monostructures is fraught with the development of metabolic syndrome, which, in 90% of cases, is accompanied by arterial hypertension.
Complex saccharides (unlike simple ones) are absorbed more slowly, without causing metabolic disturbances and sharp rises in blood sugar. The best sources of high molecular weight carbohydrates are whole grain bread, cereals, berries, herbs, vegetables, fruits.
- Use gentle cooking methods. The best options for heat treatment of food are boiling, baking, stewing, steaming. Refuse to fry food, because when you heat fat, a large number of carcinogens (creating cholesterol) are released.
- Observe fractional diet. The optimal frequency of meals is 5-6 times a day.
- Maintain the ratio of the main components of food. Hypertonic should be included in the daily diet: 15% protein (90 - 100 grams), 30% fat (80 - 85 grams), 55 - 60% complex carbohydrates (350 - 400 grams).
- Observe drinking regimen. Among hypertensive patients there is an opinion that you need to consume less water, since it helps to increase pressure. This is a dangerous fallacy. In fact, with a lack of fluid in the body, blood viscosity increases, vascular turgor decreases, and the concentration of low density lipoproteins increases.
The daily portion of water (in addition to drinks) is calculated based on the ratio of 35-50 milliliters per kilogram of body weight.
Interestingly, each cup of coffee drunk (volume of 150 milliliters) removes 4 equivalent portions of liquid (600 milliliters) from the body. The body, trying to keep such a valuable resource, creates edema, as a result of which blood pressure rises.
With hypertension accompanied by obesity, the energy value of the daily menu is reduced to 1000 - 1500 calories (by reducing the daily dose of fat by 30% and increasing the daily portion of carbohydrates by 50%).
Rigid low-calorie diets and fasting with high blood pressure are contraindicated. It is permissible for hypertensive patients with overweight 2 times a week to spend vegetarian fasting days.
Pressure Reducing Products
Hypertensive nutrition should be based on products that improve lipid metabolism, reduce the concentration of "bad" cholesterol in the blood, increase the strength of blood vessels, accelerate the removal of excess fluid from tissues, eliminate capillary spasm, and improve cardiac muscle function. When compiling a daily nutritional scheme, it is better to give preference to food, which includes vitamins B4, B6, C, E, A, B8, B9, macrocells (potassium, magnesium, iodine, selenium), polyunsaturated fats (omega-3).
List of anti-blood pressure products:
- Unsalted seafood (fish, oysters, scallops, seaweed). They contain a large amount of polyunsaturated fats (omega-3), amino acids (arginine, tryptophan, lysine, threonine, tyrosine), micro and macro elements (selenium, iodine, zinc, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium). Due to the rich ingredient composition, seafood reduces the level of harmful cholesterol, regulates the tone of blood vessels, improves the functioning of the heart muscle, and normalizes blood viscosity.
- Sour-milk products of low fat content (whey, cottage cheese, cheese, kefir, yogurt, fermented baked milk). Easily digestible calcium is supplied to the body. This nutrient is extremely important for the cardiovascular system, as it reduces the permeability of the capillary wall, participates in blood coagulation mechanisms, and stimulates the regenerative potential of the myocardium.
- Vegetables (Jerusalem artichoke, beets, potatoes, zucchini, pumpkin, cabbage, avocado, eggplant). These are natural sources of dietary fiber that have anti-sclerotic and detoxifying effects on the human body.
- Leafy greens (parsley, celery, basil, cilantro,
- Fruits, berries, dried fruits (lemon, cranberries, rose hips, viburnum, black currants, grapes, apples, oranges, grapefruit, dried apricots, prunes). The composition of these products includes natural “strengtheners” of cell membranes (rutin, vitamin C, quercetin), which prevent capillary rupture with increasing pressure. In addition, fruits and berries are rich in powerful antioxidants (polyphenols), which prevent the deposition of cholesterol on the arterial wall, and also enhance the production of nitric oxide, which creates a vasodilating effect.
- Unrefined vegetable oils (cedar, linseed, camelina). These are natural sources of omega-3 fats, which reduce the concentration of exogenous deposits in blood vessels, reduce the fragility of the capillary wall, and prevent the development of inflammation in the heart muscle.
- Whole grain products (rye bread, bran, green buckwheat, brown rice, unpolished millet, flattened oats, pasta from coarse wheat). An essential food for hypertensive patients who are overweight because it contains “slow” carbohydrates that prevent the rapid transformation of glucose into fat.
Along with this, cereals are a source of dietary fiber and protein structures that accelerate the excretion of cholesterol metabolism products and stimulate intestinal motility. With regular consumption of whole grain food, rheological parameters of the blood improve, the load on the kidneys and liver decreases, and the permeability of the capillary bed increases.
- Legumes (lentils, soybeans, beans). Champions among plants in the content of easily digestible protein. With regular consumption of legumes, the extensibility of the arterial wall increases, the risk of developing myocardial hypertrophy decreases, and the concentration of low density lipoproteins decreases.
- Herbal teas. The increase in blood pressure, in 70% of cases, is accompanied by neurological disorders (insomnia, palpitations, headaches, anxiety). To reduce psycho-emotional excitability, it is important to include decoctions from sedative herbs in the diet of hypertension: valerian, lemon balm, mint, chamomile, motherwort, hops, hawthorn, calendula, peony, oregano.
Remember, with moderate and severe degrees of hypertension, along with healthy food, it is important to follow the doctor’s instructions and regularly take medicines.
Breakfast: 200 g steamed oatmeal, 100 g assorted dried fruits (figs, dates, dried apricots, prunes).
Lunch: 150 g of fruit mousse (banana, apple, persimmon).
Lunch: 150 g whole grain pasta, 80 g goulash, 70 g broccoli salad.
Snack: 200 g of berry-curd dessert (fresh).
Dinner: 200 g of fish meatball, 30 ml of sour cream,
2 hours before bedtime: 250 ml of 1% kefir.
Breakfast: 200 g of rice and fruit porridge (raisins, banana, dates), 70 g of rye bread (dried), 20 ml of honey.
Lunch: 150 g of berry-nut mixture (grapes, cranberries, blackberries, almonds, hazelnuts).
Lunch: 200 ml of fish soup, 150 g of beet and prune salad, 10 g of garlic.
Snack: 150 g of potatoes (baked or boiled), 100 g of tomato, 20 ml of camelina oil.
Dinner: 200 g of buckwheat, 100 g of sauerkraut, 70 g of boiled turkey.
2 hours before bedtime: 250 ml of green smoothie (kefir, herbs, honey, banana).
Breakfast: 200 ml of chicory drink, 100 g of cranberry jam (grated with sugar), 70 g of whole grain bread (dried), 50 g of walnuts.
Lunch: 200 g curd souffle, 50 g raisins.
Lunch: 250 g of lentil soup, 100 g of vegetable sliced, 15 ml of flax seed oil.
Snack: 150 ml of yogurt, 100 g of fresh fruit (strawberries, banana, apples).
Dinner: 200 g of chicken breast with vegetables (stewed), 100 g of beet-garlic salad, 40 g of celery leaf.
2 hours before bedtime: 200 ml of homemade whey.
Breakfast: 150 g of apple pudding with raisins, 150 ml of dogrose broth, 30 ml of flower honey.
Lunch: 150 g of berry compote, 100 g of cottage cheese casserole.
Lunch: 200 g of borsch with beans, 100 g of rice meatball, 50 g of vegetable mixture (tomato, cucumber, celery).
Snack: 150 g of salad with seaweed, 20 ml of cedar oil
Dinner: 150 g of mashed potatoes, 100 g of squash and eggplant caviar, 70 g of chicken cutlets (steam).
2 hours before bedtime: 150 ml of yogurt.
Breakfast: 150 g of egg omelet, 100 g of sauerkraut, 70 g of bacon.
Lunch: 200 ml of Hibiscus tea, 100 g of oatmeal cookies.
Lunch: 200 g of pilaf, 100 g of beet-garlic salad, 20 ml of flax seed oil.
Snack: 200 g of fruit and berry jelly.
Dinner: 250 g of vegetable stew, 50 g of boiled veal.
2 hours before bedtime: 250 ml of yogurt.
Breakfast: 200 g of oatmeal, 100 g of fermented baked milk, 70 g of dried fruits (unabi, dates, raisins, prunes), 50 g of biscuits.
Lunch: 200 ml milkshake with cinnamon.
Lunch: 200 g squash and eggplant caviar, 100 g bean puree, 50 g leafy greens.
Snack: 200 ml of yogurt, 50 g of walnuts.
Dinner: 250 g of green buckwheat, 150 g of boiled vegetables (eggplant, beets, zucchini, carrots), 70 g of chicken steak (baked).
2 hours before bedtime: 200 ml of serum.
Breakfast: 200 ml of cocoa, 70 g of bran bread, 50 g of cheese, 30 g of butter.
Lunch: 200 g of seasonal berries, 50 g of almonds.
Lunch: 150 grams of "jacket" potatoes, 100 g of cauliflower in batter, 100 g of baked turkey, 15 ml of camelina oil.
Snack: 200 ml of mint tea, 150 g of oat-curd casserole.
Dinner: 150 g of fish steak (stew), 100 g of vegetable mixture (tomatoes, celery, pepper, cucumbers, garlic).
2 hours before bedtime: 200 ml of kefir.
Beekeeping Products Against Hypertension
To increase the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy, together with traditional methods of treatment, bee vital products (apiproducts) are used.
Propolis ("black wax")
It has antiseptic, regenerating, antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, diuretic (lung) and anticoagulant (blood thinning) effects on the body. With regular use of propolis, lipid metabolism improves, myocardial endurance increases, stiffness of the vascular wall decreases, platelet aggregation decreases, and pain in the heart decreases.
For people suffering from the first stage of hypertension, it is advisable to use pure propolis (under the tongue) or phyto composition with lingonberry juice (50 milliliters of nectar, 20 drops of 30% tincture of "black wax"). For pathologies of moderate and severe degree, the product is taken in the form of an aqueous solution, as an addition to the main treatment (35 drops of 30% alcohol extract per 200 milliliters of liquid).
In addition, propolis ointment has an excellent hypotensive effect. To create a healing mixture you will need: 5 grams of "black wax" (crushed), 15 milliliters of honey, 15 grams of butter. These ingredients are mixed, and then heated to 40 degrees in a "water bath". The cooled composition is applied to the feet, then put on cotton socks.
A powerful metabolic agent containing high concentrations of potassium and magnesium. Royal jelly improves myocardial nutrition, stabilizes the heart rhythm, reduces psychoemotional excitability, eliminates vascular spasm, strengthens the walls of the capillaries, stimulates the synthesis of hemoglobin, and removes excess fluid from the body.
At the first stage of the disease, bee milk is used mainly fresh (20-30 milligrams under the tongue). Before using the product, the oral cavity is thoroughly cleaned with vegetable oil.
At higher blood pressure (severity 2 and 3), royal jelly is used in combination with antihypertensive herbs (valerian, mint, horsetail, cinnamon, motherwort, hop cones, clover). To prepare the composition, the dry components are mixed in equal volumes. After that, 30 grams of the mixture is poured with 500 milliliters of hot water. Herbal tea is consumed three times a day, 100 milliliters (40 minutes before a meal). After taking the broth, 3 milliliters of a mixture of honey and mother milk are resorbed (1: 100 ratio).
Wax Moth Extract
The larvae of the bee parasite (flint) contain a unique digestive enzyme (cerase), which dissolves low density lipoproteins. As a result of this, the concentration of endogenous deposits on the walls of the arteries decreases, the vascular lumen increases, and blood lipid parameters normalize.
An effective remedy for hypertension, used in the form of bee stings. Under their influence, spasms of arteries are eliminated, the frequency of nerve impulses is normalized, the work of the heart muscle is stabilized, and the peripheral vessels of the kidneys relax.
Bee venom is an excellent tool for stopping hypertensive crises (in the early stages of the disease).
Remember, this method of pressure reduction can only be used under the supervision of a doctor (in order to avoid an allergic reaction). To increase the effectiveness of therapy, “healing” poison is combined with other apiproducts: propolis, honey, perga, royal jelly.
It includes a huge amount of nutrients (vitamins, salts, organic acids, proteins, fats, enzymes), essential hypertension to replenish the resources spent (especially after diuretic therapy). In addition, perga normalizes the tone of the vascular bed, strengthens the capillary wall, promotes blood thinning, inhibits the oxidation of “good” lipoproteins, and reduces the permeability of veins and arteries (due to the high content of rutin).
To prevent hypertensive crises take 5 - 15 grams of bee pollen per day (start with 1 gram).
A natural source of easily digestible carbohydrates (glucose, fructose, oligoses), enzymes (amylases, lipases, proteases, invertases), amino acids (lysine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, arginine, tyrosine), micro and macro elements (potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur, calcium ), vitamins (P, B5, B6).
Due to its rich ingredient composition, honey strengthens the heart muscle, “calms” the nervous system, increases the elasticity of the vascular wall, improves cholesterol metabolism, eliminates anxiety, stabilizes the heart rhythm, and relieves headaches. This product is used to treat the "mild" stage of hypertension.
For preventive purposes, to strengthen the heart muscle, it is advisable to use a honey-rose mixture. To do this, 15 grams of crushed berries are poured with 400 milliliters of hot water (80 degrees) and insisted in a thermos for 7 - 8 hours. Then the extract obtained is filtered and combined with 15 milliliters of flower honey. The composition is taken at 100 milliliters three times a day. Interestingly, the most pronounced hypotensive effect is exerted by chestnut and buckwheat honey.
In addition, apiproducts are used for the prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease, myocardial dystrophy, vascular atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, non-rheumatic myocarditis,
Nutrition for hypertension is an integral part of antihypertensive therapy aimed at correcting metabolic disorders, maximizing cardiac activity and preventing the development of secondary complications.
With the first symptoms of high blood pressure (dizziness, nausea, pain in the heart, "double vision" in the eyes), it is important, first of all, to reduce the daily intake of salt (up to 3 grams), increase the daily volume of drinking water (up to 2 liters), exclude animal fats from the diet, enrich the menu with potassium and magnesium.
Useful foods for hypertension: cereals (whole grain bread, cereals), dairy products (cottage cheese, whey, kefir, cheese, fermented baked milk), fruits (lemon, apples, grapes, banana, dates, dried apricots, prunes), berries (cranberries, blueberries , blackberries, strawberries, raspberries, watermelon, melon), greens (celery, onions, garlic, cilantro, basil, parsley), vegetables (potatoes, beets, carrots, cabbage), unrefined vegetable oils (cedar, camelina, linseed), legumes (lentils, peas, beans), nuts (hazelnuts, cashews, walnuts, almonds). To improve lipid metabolism (including the prevention of atherosclerosis), it is advisable to enrich the patient's diet with beekeeping components (royal jelly, honey, propolis, and wax moth extract).